Solid-State NMR Analysis of Organic Cocrystals and Complexes
Frederick G. Vogt*†, Jacalyn S. Clawson†, Mark Strohmeier†, Andrew J. Edwards‡, Tran N. Pham‡ and Simon A. Watson‡
Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) is capable of providing detailed structural information about organic and pharmaceutical cocrystals and complexes. SSNMR nondestructively analyzes small amounts of powdered material and generally yields data with higher information content than vibrational spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. These advantages can be utilized in the analysis of pharmaceutical cocrystals, which are often initially produced using solvent drop grinding techniques that do not lend themselves to single crystal growth for X-ray diffraction studies. In this work, several molecular complexes and cocrystals are examined to understand the capabilities of the SSNMR techniques, particularly their ability to prove or disprove molecular association and observe structural features such as hydrogen bonding. Dipolar correlation experiments between spin pairs such as 1H−1H, 1H−13C, and 19F−13C are applied to study hydrogen bonding, intermolecular contacts, and spin diffusion to link individual molecules together in a crystal structure and quickly prove molecular association. Analysis of the principal components of chemical shift tensors is also utilized where relevant, as these are more sensitive to structural effects than the isotropic chemical shift alone. In addition, 1H T1 relaxation measurements are also demonstrated as a means to prove phase separation of components. On the basis of these results, a general experimental approach to cocrystal analysis by SSNMR is suggested.