1H Photo-CIDNP Enhancements in Heteronuclear Correlation NMR Spectroscopy
Ashok Sekhar and Silvia Cavagnero*
J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113 (24), pp 8310–8318
Abstract:Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) is usually employed as a probe of solvent exposure in biomolecular NMR. The potential of the photo-CIDNP effect for sensitivity enhancement, however, remains poorly explored. Here, we introduce 1H-photo-CIDNP in heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy at low laser irradiation power (1 W), and compare the sensitivity of various 1H-photo-CIDNP-enhanced- (HPE) 1H−15N heteronuclear correlation pulse sequences, including HSQC, HMQC, and SOFAST-HMQC, in terms of their ability to detect the Trp indole Hε1 resonance. Both Trp and the Trp-containing protein apoHmpH were analyzed using flavin mononucleotide as photosensitizer in aqueous solutions either containing or lacking urea. We find that 1H−15N photo-CIDNP-SOFAST-HMQC, denoted here as HPE-SOFAST-HMQC, yields a 2-fold higher signal-to-noise per unit time than the parent SOFAST-HMQC, for the solvent-exposed Trp of urea-unfolded apoHmpH. Thus, HPE-SOFAST-HMQC is the most sensitive heteronuclear correlation pulse sequence for the detection of solvent-exposed Trp.
Solid-State NMR Study of Nanodiamonds Produced by the Detonation Technique
Marc Dubois*†, Katia Gurin†, Elodie Petit†, Nicolas Batisse†, Andr Hamwi†, Naoki Komatsu‡, Jrme Giraudet§, Pascal Pirotte§ and Francis Masin*§
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (24), pp 10371–10378
Abstract:Nanodiamonds obtained by the detonation method have been investigated by means of solid-state magnetic nuclear resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance. 13C and 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and 13C MAS NMR with 1H to 13C cross-polarization allow the determination of surface-hydrogenated groups (CH, CH2, and COH) and the quasi-absence of an sp2 carbon fullerene-like shell on the diamond surface to be underlined. The 1H and 13C spin−lattice relaxation time (T1) and second moment measurements are presented as a function of the temperature. Relaxation is shown to be mainly caused by paramagnetic centers in the case of 13C nuclei, whereas the presence of a molecular motion with an activation energy of 11.15 kJ·mol−1 is involved for 1H nuclei.
Identification of Mixed Valence Vanadium in ETS-10 Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, 51V Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Density Functional Theory Studies
Kristopher Ooms† and Tatyana Polenova
Michael J. Nash‡ and Raul F. Lobo*
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (24), pp 10477–10484
Abstract: Microporous vanadium-substituted titanosilicate ETS-10 solids are promising photocatalysts for decomposition of organic molecules. The dopant vanadium metal modulates the electronic environment of the titanosilicate matrix and plays a major role in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activity. However, the local electronic and geometric structure of the vanadium sites in these materials is a subject of controversy. Using vanadium electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 51V nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have characterized the local environments of the vanadium sites in vanadium-substituted ETS-10 samples with different vanadium loadings. The measurements reveal clearly the presence of V(IV) and V(V) oxidation states. The EPR results suggest that V(IV) is in octahedral sites and, therefore, must substitute for Ti in the framework. 51V NMR studies indicate that the V(V) species are adjacent to the V(IV) species in most cases on the basis of significant electron−nuclear dipolar interaction between the V(V) nuclei and the unpaired electron on V(IV). The NMR chemical shift and electric field gradient parameters estimated from the NMR spectra are used in conjunction with density functional theory calculations to propose a model where the V(V) species preferentially occupy sites at the ends of the octahedral chains.
Long-Time Scale Ionic Dynamics in Dense Clay Sediments Measured by the Frequency Variation of the 7Li Multiple-Quantum NMR Relaxation Rates in Relation with a Multiscale Modeling
Patrice Porion*, Anne Marie Faugre and Alfred Delville*
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (24), pp 10580–10597
Abstract: 7Li NMR relaxation measurements under spin-locking conditions are used to probe the dynamical properties of the lithium counterions within dense dispersions of charged anisotropic nanoplatelets. By simultaneously measuring the T1ρ and T2ρ relaxation times in addition to triple-quantum filtered relaxation times under the same spin-locking conditions, it is possible to separately quantify the contributions from the quadrupolar and the heterogeneous dipolar relaxation mechanisms. Thanks to the contribution from the residual quadrupolar coupling felt by the condensed lithium counterions, that procedure allows a broad dynamical range to be probed by performing spin-locking relaxation measurements using a limited number of irradiation powers. As illustrated by a multiscale modeling of the lithium diffusion and relaxation within such heterogeneous system, the frequency variation of the spectral densities characterizing the decorrelation of the quadrupolar coupling is a sensitive probe of the ionic mobility and the structure of the colloidal dispersion.
Proton Dynamics in Layered Double Hydroxides: A 1H T1 Relaxation and Line Width Investigation
Marc X. Reinholdt*†, Panakkattu K. Babu†‡§ and R. James Kirkpatrick†
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (24), pp 10623–10631
Abstract:The investigation of the dynamics of water and organic species confined in minerals or adsorbed at their surface is of significant geochemical, environmental, catalytic, biomedicine, and life’s growth interests but is poorly understood on the molecular scale. This work explores the behavior of water molecules and glutamate species adsorbed on and between the double hydroxide layers of hydrotalcite [HT; (Mg2Al)(OH)6A−·nH2O, where A− is a counteranion which may bear different charges] and compares the results to those for HT containing small inorganic anions. The relative humidity (RH) dependence of the 1H T1 relaxation rates for all samples reveals the existence of two separate spin systems with 1/T1 relaxation rates differing by a factor of approximately 2 × 103. The static 1H spectral line widths allow assigning the fast relaxing protons to the fixed “static” interlayer and adsorbed species—i.e. bound water, bound organic species, and most of the structural hydroxyl groups (-OH)—and the slow ones to the “mobile” species—i.e. free water and solvated organic molecules and some of the structural -OH groups.
Transformation of AlPO-53 to JDF-2: Reversible Dehydration of a Templated Aluminophosphate Studied by MAS NMR and Diffraction
Sharon E. Ashbrook*†, Marica Cutajar‡, John M. Griffin†, Zoe A. D. Lethbridge§, Richard I. Walton*§ and Stephen Wimperis*‡
J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (24), pp 10780–10789
Abstract:We describe a detailed study of the aluminum phosphate AlPO-53 in both its as-made and calcined forms. In its as-made state, AlPO-53(A), the material is templated by methylammonium cations and contains occluded water molecules and also hydroxide ions that bridge pairs of aluminum atoms, increasing their coordination number to 5. Solid-state NMR experiments confirm the local environment of the aluminum and phosphorus atoms proposed in a previous structural model from powder X-ray diffraction. 31P NMR shows the presence of four distinct resonances with an intensity ratio of 1:1:2:2, consistent with the expected six crystallographic P sites. 27Al triple-quantum MAS NMR resolves five aluminum peaks, two with NMR parameters characteristic of four-coordinate Al and three of five-coordinate Al. One of these latter signals has a greater intensity than that of the others, consistent with the presence of two overlapping signals from two distinct crystallographic Al sites. First-principles calculations of NMR parameters provide a complete spectral assignment and confirm our interpretation of unresolved spectra. AlPO-53(A) is found to convert easily into a second crystalline phase on moderate heating (upon spinning in the NMR rotor for an extended period, for example), and variable-temperature powder X-ray experiments, together with TGA, suggest that this is a dehydration process yielding a second aluminophosphate, JDF-2. This is confirmed using both 31P and 27Al NMR, with the spectral assignment of JDF-2 supported by first-principles calculations. Calcination of AlPO-53(A) or of the dehydrated material, JDF-2, at 300 °C yields the microporous open-framework material AlPO-53(B), a tetrahedral network with three Al and three P sites, as confirmed by NMR and first-principles calculations. In addition to demonstrating the power of the combined use of NMR, first-principles calculations, and diffraction for detailed structural investigations, we show that the possibility of a reversible dehydration in as-made AlPO-53 and similar systems is an important consideration in structural studies and provides evidence that the published structural model for AlPO-53(A) may be incomplete.