Single Crystal 55Mn ENDOR of Concanavalin A: Detection of Two Mn2+ Sites with Different 55Mn Quadrupole Tensors
Kuppala V. Narasimhulu, Raanan Carmieli, and Daniella Goldfarb*
Concanavalin A is a member of the plant hemeagglutinin (or plant lectin) family that contains two metal binding sites; one, called S1, is occupied by Mn2+ and the other, S2, by Ca2+. 55Mn electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements were performed on a single crystal of concanavalin A at W-band (95 GHz, ~3.5 T) to determine the 55Mn nuclear quadrupole interaction in a protein binding site and its relation to structural parameters. Such measurements are easier at a high field because of the high sensitivity for size-limited samples and the reduction of second-order effects on the spectrum which simplifies spectral analysis. The analysis of the 55Mn ENDOR rotation patterns showed that two chemically inequivalent Mn2+ types are present at low temperatures, although the high-resolution X-ray structure reported only one site. Their quadrupole coupling constants, e2Qq/h, are significantly different; 10.7 ± 0.6 MHz for Mand only -2.7 ± 0.6 MHz for M. The ENDOR data also refined the hyperfine coupling determined earlier by single-crystal EPR measurements, yielding a small but significant difference between the two: -262.5 MHz for M and -263.5 MHz for M. The principal z-axis for M is not aligned with any of the Mn-ligand directions, but is 25 off the Mn-asp10 direction, and its orientation is different than that of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction. Because of the small quadrupole interaction of M the orientation dependence was very mild, leading to larger uncertainties in the asymmetry parameter. Nonetheless, there too z is not along the Mn-ligand bonds and is rotated 90 with respect to MnA. These results show, that similar to the ZFS, the quadrupolar interaction is highly sensitive to small differences in the coordination sphere of the Mn2+, and the resolution of the two types is in agreement with the earlier observation of a two-site conformational dynamic detected through the ZFS interaction, which is frozen out at low temperatures and averaged at room temperature. To account for the structural origin of the different e2Qq/h values, the electric field gradient tensor was calculated using the point-charge model. The calculations showed that a relatively small displacement of the oxygen ligand of asp10 can lead to differences on the order observed experimentally.